Structural characteristics of cells

What to do? Design a PowerPoint presentation on the structural characteristics of cells.

With each slide

  • include images
  • highlight the important terms/ phrases in each dot point

You may copy and paste the points from this page!

Slide1: Title: Structural characteristics of cells.

Example slide:

 

Slide 2:   Outline the historical development of the cell theory

The cell theory states:

  1. Cells are the smallest units of life
  2. All living things are made of cells
  3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Slide 3: Outline the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown to the cell theory.

  • Robert Hooke assisted with the development of the compound light microscope and use of the iris diaphragm. These technologies allowed cells to be observed for the first time.
  • In 1665 Robert Hooke used his light microscope to observe describe and describe cork cells.
  • Robert Brown was the first person to identify structures (such as the nucleus) within plant cells.

 

Slide 4:   Describe evidence to support the cell theory

 

  • The increasing body of information arising from the many microscopic and biological studies being carried out by research institutions is continuing to support the cell theory.
  • The development and use of increasingly precise and technical equipment is also providing further support to the cell theory.

 

Slides 4 , 5 & 6:   Discuss the significance of technological advances to developments in the cell    

                              theory

 

  • Scientific equipment is limited by the technology that is available at the time. In other words, “knowledge increases as technology improves”.
  • Developments in microscopes have greatly enhanced the detail at which microscopic objects can be viewed.  (i.e Simple light microscopes to complex electron scanning microscopes).
  • Light sources for microscopes have improved significantly from the simple use of daylight.
  • Modern light microscopes utilize tungsten filaments, LED’s, electron beams and even x-rays as their light sources.
  • These light sources provide a more uniform beam of light to observe objects as well as a greater penetrating power (x-rays) for viewing inside microscopic objects.
  • The use of microtomes allows scientists to prepare extremely thin slides of specimens. This has greatly enhanced the detail that can be observed using light microscopes.
  • Significant improvements in the production of lenses and the use of multiple lenses within microscopes has improved the magnifying power and image accuracy (less distortion) of these technologies.
  • Staining techniques improve the contrast of cells being viewed using light microscopes. Stains allow scientists to observe structures that were previously not visible.
  • Computer technology allows scientists to construct detailed three dimensional models of cells and cell organelles.

 

Slides 6 & 7:   Identify cell organelles seen with current light and electron microscopes.

 

  • Organelles seen with current light microscopes include:

    • Nucleus
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Vacuoles
    • Chloroplasts (plants)
    • Cell wall (plants)

 

  • In addition to organelles seen using light microscopes the following organelles can be viewed in great detail using electron microscopes:

    • Mitochondrion
    • Ribosomes
    • Golgi body
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
    • Centrioles

 

Slide 7:  Use secondary resources to complete the table below in your workbook.

 

Organelle name

Function

Nucleus

 

Cell membrane

 

Cytoplasm

 

Vacuoles

 

Chloroplasts (plants)

 

Cell wall (plants)

 

Mitochondrion

 

Ribosomes

 

Golgi body

 

Endoplasmic reticulum

 

Lysosomes

 

Peroxisomes

 

Centrioles

 

 

Additional activity:

Watch the following video showing some cellular organelles at work and make a list of the ones that you can identify.

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